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    The Approximate Composition Of Meat Extracts
    Water. Proteins . and Gelatin Extractives. .
    Sub- Mineral stances Ash.
    References and Remarks.
    Armour’s Extract1 24.30 ! 16.08 20.55 20.06 19.03
    15.55 10.89 43.23 4.122 25.91 Food and Sanitation,l893
    Bovril 44.40 16.94 20.32 __ 18.32 Stutzer, 1897
    39.58 912 34.10 1.292 13.52 Chittenden
    Bovril Fluid Beef1 38.10 12.24 1204 19.75 17.87 –
    Invalids’ Bovril1 21.82 21.42 39.60 – 17.16 –
    21.16 16.66 16.13 29.23 16.82 Allen’s commercial analysis
    Bouillon Fleet . 61.95 11.81 9.87 3.87 12.50 Tatlock
    Brand’s Beef Bouillon 1 36.27 9.58 19.34 19.75 15.07 –
    Brand’s Essence. 87.17 10.433 1.01
    1.39 Candy, vide Hutchison, 1904. The juice of beef, mutton, veal or chicken, without any addition
    Hipi …. 42.00 43.00 – 6.60 8.40 Medical Press, 1899. A mutton extract
    Lemco1 . 17.80 16.48 3812 6.00 21.50 –
    Liebig’s Extract 20.06 0.06 55.72 0.912 24.04 Chittenden. Fat and protein free.
    18.30 9.40 30.00 18.602 23.60 Tankard
    Mason’s Essence 77.07 303 7.47 2.92 9.51 Food and Sanitation,1896 (Hehner)
    Oxine Extract1 . 62.90 13.00 4.54 – 19.60 Hutchison
    Oxo1 . . . 38.10 18.93 2031 5.35 17-31 Meat extract, albumin and fibrin, without fat
    Viking Beef Essence 90.68 3.63 1.85 2.41 1-43 Tankard
    1 Analysis given by the manufacturers.
    2 Ether extract.
    3 Half gelatin.
    4 Including extractives.
    Read more:
    Meat Extract –
    A term which in popular usage embraces several products differing considerably in character. That best known and most widely used in the preparation of “Beef tea” is the commercial meat or Beef extract obtained by simple boiling, straining and evaporation without the addition of other ingredients. It consists principally of “extractives,” or meat flavor, together with a certain proportion of mineral salts. The fat is removed, as it would in time render the extract rancid, and nearly all the valuable albuminoids are also lost – they coagulate during the stewing of the meat and are strained off together with the fibrine, etc. Dry albumin is added to some preparations in the final processes, but no attempt is made to carry through the natural Beef albumen as, under the conditions in which meat extract is ordinarily made, marketed and used, it would readily decompose and spoil the product.
    Meat extract of the type described, was formerly rated as a condensed food product of high nutritive value. That position has been entirely abandoned and it is now acknowledged that it is entirely inadequate to support life, but it has retained great importance in both the medical and commercial worlds on the more solid foundation of its indisputable merit as the basis of an agreeable and thoroughly wholesome beverage of mildly stimulating properties. Physicians find it a valuable adjunct in the care of invalids and convalescents, and its meaty taste often lends zest to the necessarily restricted diet of the sick room, exercising a highly beneficial effect by enabling the digestive organs to extract more nutriment from other foods. It is especially useful for mixing with milk – persons who cannot assimilate plain milk can nearly always digest it when flavored with a little Beef extract. Its other uses include its employment in large quantities to give a relish to the condensed foods, such as those made with pease-meal, carried by army commissaries, and its similar familiar employment in the kitchen to enhance the flavor of soups, sauces, etc. It is worth remembering that extract of meat contains those flavoring properties to which is principally due the higher market value of the choice cuts.
    Many almost worthless preparations are, however, sold as “meat extracts” and it is advisable to confine purchases to houses of known reliability.
    Somewhat similar value attaches to properly made commercial preparations of meat juices or “meat extracts,” obtained by pressure of the raw meat and then preserved without cooking.
    A third class contains the soluble albumoses (peptoses) of the meat predigested – i.e., digested by artificial means. The best of these offer food values in important percentages, but their use should be regulated by medical advice
    In spite of the fact that most people enjoy – or at all events do not object to – the strong flavor of the best extracts, their taste and odor are sometimes found quite offensive by those possessing especially delicate palates. When this objection is found by a patient, it can be obviated to a considerable extent by putting a little butter, and plenty of salt in the hot Beef tea.
    Beef tea should always be served hot – if drunk cold, or nearly so, its stimulating property is much reduced.
    Following are the standards for meat extracts and similar products adopted by the Association of State and National Dairy and Food Departments and the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
    (1) meat Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh meat with boiling water, and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after the removal of fat, and contains not less than 75% of total solids, of which not over 27% is ash and not over 12% is sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not over 0.6% is fat and not less than 8% is nitrogen. The nitrogenous compounds contain not less than 40% of meat bases, and not less than 10% of creatin (a compound found in muscular flesh) and creatinin.
    (2) Fluid meat Extract is identical with meat extract, except that it is concentrated to a lower degree, and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of total solids.
    (3) Bone Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh trimmed bones with boiling water and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after removal of fat, and contains not less than 75% of total solids.
    (4) Fluid Bone Extract is identical with bone extract, except that it is concentrated to a lower degree and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of total solids.
    (5) meat Juice is the fluid portion of muscle fibre, obtained by pressure or otherwise, and may be concentrated by evaporation at a temperature below the coagulating point of the soluble proteins. The solids contain not more than 15% of ash, not more than 2.5% of sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not more than 4% nor less than 2% of phosphoric acid and not less than 12% of nitrogen. The nitrogenous bodies contain not less than 35% of coagulable proteins and not more than 40% of meat bases.
    For a number of years after its first introduction, the greater part of both the European and American supply came from the Argentine Republic, in which country the Liebig Company, the original manufacturer, established its first factory. The United States is now one of the principal producers.
    Home-Made Beef Tea, meat Juices, etc. In contrast to that from commercial meat Extract, home-made “Beef tea,” as generally prepared, is entitled to rank as both food and stimulant, as it contains a fair percentage of protein and fat, in addition to the gelatine and
    Beetroot and Hawthorn May Improve Heart Health
    A recent study conducted by the University of Texas (UT) and Neogenis Laboratories suggests that a dietary supplement containing beetroot and hawthorn beery may boost heart health.–Beetroot and hawthorn berry both affect the body’s nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. The resulting NO compound is important to cardiovascular health because it dilates blood vessels, thereby lowering blood pressure (one of the most significant predictors of heart disease) and improving blood flow. Researchers tested the effects of a combination of the two herbs on NO availability. Beetroot was selected for study because it contains high levels of nitrate. Similarly, hawthorn berries have a high activity of the enzyme nitrite reductase, facilitating the conversion of nitrite to NO.—Previous research on the hawthorn berry has already shown promise for its use in treating heart conditions. In a review of literature, Pittler et al. found hawthorn berry effective in improving symptoms of chronic heart failure, including impaired heart workload capacity. Other researchers found that hawthorn berry effectively reduced blood pressure in healthy subjects. The previous literature has not yet established beetroot’s effectiveness in treating heart problems.—In the UT study, 30 participants, all above the age of 40, were randomly assigned to consume either the herb blend Neo40 Daily® or a placebo twice daily for 30 days. The subjects all presented with at least three of the following known risk factors for cardiovascular disease: elevated blood pressure (hypertension), obesity, high blood lipid levels (hyperlipidemia), diabetes, family history of heart disease, sedentary lifestyle, and history of smoking.—After 30 days of therapy, the herb supplement group had significant increases in NO levels, as compared to the placebo group. Furthermore, 72 percent of the individuals in the herbal supplement group experienced statistically significant reductions in blood triglyceride levels, another risk factor for heart disease.–This study provides evidence for the herbs use in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. However, additional research is needed to completely qualify the relationship between diet, NO availability and heart disease.
    Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005312. View Abstract
    Zand J, Lanza F, Garg HK, et al. All-natural nitrite and nitrate containing dietary supplement promotes nitric oxide production and reduces triglycerides in humans. Nutr Res. 2011 Apr;31(4):262-9. View Abstract
    Simple Remedy—take hawthorn leaf and add to it beets in equal weight ( example 2 oz of each) then take either red wine or alcohol ( ethanol) and add 6 oz and then blend down for 7-10 minutes—strain and use anywhere from 1 tablespoon to 1 oz daily several times a day
    (OMNS Aug 3, 2012) Most citizens of Great Britain are totally unaware of the 1939 Cancer Act which effectively prevents them from finding out about different treatments for cancer.
    Excerpts from the UK 1939 Cancer Act:
    “4 – (1) No person shall take any part in the publication of any advertisement – (a) containing an offer to treat any person for cancer, or to prescribe any remedy therefor, or to give any advice in connection with the treatment thereof; or (b) referring to any article, or articles of any description, in terms which are calculated to lead to the use of that article, or articles of that description, in the treatment of cancer. —In this section the expression “advertisement” includes any “notice, circular, label, wrapper or other document, and any announcement made orally or by any means of producing or transmitting sounds”. [1] –Publication of such advertisements is permitted to a very restrictive group comprising members of either House of Parliament, local authority, governing bodies of voluntary hospitals, registered or training to become registered medical practitioners, nurses or pharmacists, and persons involved in the sale or supply of surgical appliances. A very tight grip, therefore, is exercised on information that is fed to citizens of Great Britain; interestingly, the Act does not apply to Northern Ireland. —That pretty much wraps it up, and wraps us (in Britain) up in the legal stranglehold that this outdated Act still exerts. Was this enacted to protect the citizens from charlatans and “quacks” or to safeguard the interests of the National Radium Trust, to whom the British Government lent money?[F14] If no one is allowed to tell us, how can we, the general public, ever find out what alternatives there are to those offered by mainstream medicine, mainly surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy?
    No Freedom of Therapy, Information, or Assembly
    My colleague, Sarah Ling, and I unwittingly found ourselves in a maelstrom when we decided to hold a convention in Birmingham, later this year, to do just that – inform the general public about some of the other ways to tackle this hideous disease than those generally doled out to their mostly trusting, but fear-filled patients. A well-justified fear of the actual treatments as well as the disease prevails. –Last year, Sarah’s sister was diagnosed with an aggressive form of cancer. Chemotherapy was the only treatment offered, which she accepted out of fear. She nearly died within hours of having it, and very sadly died days afterwards. Sarah was determined to help prevent others from enduring such trauma and so, under the umbrella of our Institute (The Cambridge Institute of Complementary Health), we organised a convention to educate people – conventional/complementary health professionals and the general public – about different ways to treat people who have cancer. —We quickly drew up a short list of speakers that we felt would have much to contribute, including Dr Stanislaw Burzynski who agreed to come and talk about his pioneering work on antineoplastins. —After posting our speakers on our web-site, one, an oncologist, pulled out due to a malevolent e-mail she had received, questioning her wisdom at sharing a platform with Dr Burzynski. She didn’t want to cause her team any controversy. We then discovered that we had attracted a lot of adverse attention that was derogatory, critical of our speakers, casting aspersions on them and on us as an organisation. Unfortunately Dr Burzynski decided not to come – so as not to expose us to the sort of attacks that he has suffered. Regrettably, the public lost an opportunity to hear first-hand of his pioneering treatments in tackling cancers, including inoperable brain tumours.[F15] –Two speakers down, we then found ourselves possibly contravening the archaic Cancer Act. We’ve had to be extremely careful in how we word any publications relating to the convention so that the Advertising Standards Agency doesn’t come down on us like a ton of bricks and prevent us from holding it at all. Britain cherishes its long-held tradition of freedom of speech, but in recent years that seems questionable. However, we can still hold debates, and that is what we are doing.
    We are aware that efforts will be made to stop us, from those who are not seekers of truth. If they were truly interested in the welfare of people, they would be advocating most of the alternative/complementary approaches instead of deriding them and trying to close down clinics and individuals who practise them, via the Advertising Standards Agency. This ridiculous Act affords them the guise of protecting the public and gives them ammunition that they can use against persons advocating alternatives.
    We can’t hold an open day of education on treating cancer in this country: how bizarre is that? How much longer can this information be contained?
    The Cost of Ignorance
    The UK National Health Service is overstretched and, as more and more people contract cancer (one in three presently), the rising costs of expensive and often ineffective treatments will surely mean they have to look at alternatives. —
    Conventional healthcare professionals are too often ignorant of the enormous value of unconventional treatments. How can they be otherwise, as those outside of their profession are prohibited from alluding to the fact that they can help treat cancer? Shockingly, even nutrition is most often totally overlooked during orthodox cancer treatment, and the very foods that promote cancers are given to patients in our hospitals sometimes in order to maintain calorie intake. There is frequently no advice on diet, that most crucial aspect of our health. [2] –
    Thankfully, some oncologists do recognise the benefits that alternative/complementary treatments offer. [3] Hopefully more and more will come to accept that integrating the best of conventional and complementary/alternative methods is the way forward.
    It is our opinion that a reform of the 1939 Cancer Act is long overdue. The tenacious grip that it holds on treating cancer must be relinquished, so that patients and their healthcare providers can make an informed choice as to what approach may be best for their individual needs. -(Madeline C. Hickey-Smith has an honours degree in biology and is cofounder of the Cambridge Institute of Complementary Health . The direct link to the convention page is .)
    Oleuropein boosts testosterone level, lowers cortisol secretion, stimulates anabolism
    Oleuropein is a compound that occurs naturally in olive oil and helps the body to use proteins more economically. In a Japanese study, published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, rats that had a protein-rich diet retained no less than 46 percent more protein when large amounts of oleuropein were added to their food. In addition, they produced more testosterone and less cortisol.
    Oleuropein is found in olives, olive oil and leaves of the olive tree. Supplements containing olive-leaf extracts have been on the market for years, and if you look carefully you’ll find cheap extracts containing 25 percent oleuropein.
    The structural formula of the substance is shown below on the left. With a bit of chemical tinkering you can remove the glucose group from the oleuropein molecule, leaving you with a pared-down version – chemists call it an aglycon – of oleuropein. The Japanese experimented with the natural version of oleuropein.
    Seven years ago the Japanese reported that virgin olive oil boosted the metabolism of rats.
    It was the phenol oleuropein that was responsible for this, they discovered later. [J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Oct;54(5):363-70.] Oleuropein boosted the secretion of adrenalin and noradrenalin in rats, and made the brown fat cells burn more fatty acids.
    The discovery of the adrenergic effect of oleuropein prompted some manufacturers to add oleuropein to bodybuilding supplements..
    Fifteen years ago the same researchers discovered that garlic had approximately the same effect. And when the Japanese combined garlic supplementation with a protein-rich diet, they observed that the garlic boosted anabolism: lab animals retained more nitrogen, and produced more testosterone and less cortisol. That’s why the Japanese were curious whether oleuropein also had a similar anabolic effect.
    The researchers gave three groups of rats food containing 10, 25 or 40 percent protein [Casein] for 28 days. Half of the rats in each group were given food containing 1 g oleuropein per kg.
    The researchers counted the number of nitrogen molecules in the urine and droppings of the rats, which enabled them to calculate how much nitrogen the rats retained. The more nitrogen you retain, the more proteins your body builds up. Nitrogen is an essential component of proteins.
    The rats retained relatively more nitrogen, the more oleuropein they consumed. In the group that ate food containing the most protein, supplementation with oleuropein boosted the amount of nitrogen retained by 46 percent.
    In the rats that ate large amounts of protein, oleuropein tripled the concentration of testosterone in the testes, while the concentration of cortisol in the blood went down by more than half.
    The concentration of LH increased as the researchers introduced increasingly higher concentrations of aglycon made from oleuropein into the rats’ circulatory system. This increased secretion of LH may be a consequence of the higher adrenalin and noradrenalin levels caused by the oleuropein, the Japanese think.
    The researchers believe that these hormonal effects are the key to explaining the anabolic effect of oleuropein.
    “Oleuropein supplementation enhances protein anabolism and suppresses protein catabolism owing to hormonal regulation by the stimulation of steroid hormones via noradrenaline, leading to a higher testicular testosterone level and a lower plasma corticosterone level in rats fed a high-protein diet”, the researchers conclude.
    Interestingly, the rats that were given oleuropein did not put on weight. As far as the researchers could see – although they did not study the effect on body composition extensively – the rats became slimmer. Their fat deposits did shrink at least.
    So doing a quick calculation: a rat eats about 50 g feed per kg bodyweight daily. That means 50 mg oleuropein. Converted to human proportions, that means 8 mg oleuropein per kg bodyweight per day. So if you weigh 80 kg, you’d need 640 mg oleuropein daily. If you can get that quantity out of an olive leaf extract that consists of 25 percent oleuropein, you’d need about 2.6 g extract each day. –That’s manageable.
    J Nutr Biochem. 2013 May;24(5):887-93.
    Diet rich in mono-unsaturated fat boosts EPOC 17.01.2012
    Animal study: olive oil is good for (old) muscles 12.08.2011
    Your body burns unsaturated fat better after exercise 11.11.2010
    Why you stay slimmer more easily with olive oil than with saturated fats 31.10.2010
    Olive oil converts cholesterol more easily into testosterone 01.09.2009
    More adrenalin through olive oil 23.06.2009
    Damiana – Turnera diffusa.
    J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Jan 24;
    Authors: Szewczyk K, Zidorn C
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Half a dozen of the currently accepted 135 Turnera species are used in traditional medicine, most notably Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. which is one of the most highly appreciated plant aphrodisiacs. Other traditional uses of Turnera L. species include the treatment of anaemia, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, fever, fungal disease, gastrointestinal complaints, pain, pulmonary and respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and women’s health problems. Additionally, Turnera species are used as abortives, expectorants, and laxatives.
    PHYTOCHEMISTRY: Flavonoids (22 different compounds), maltol glucoside, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides (7 different compounds), monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera.
    BIOACTIVITY: Bioactivities experimentally proven for members of the genus Turnera encompass antianxiety, antiaromatase, antibacterial including antimycobacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, adapatogenic, antiobesity, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and aphrodisiac activities. Most of these activities have so far been investigated only in chemical, cell based, or animal assays. In contrast, the antiobesity activity was also investigated in a study on healthy human subjects and with a herbal preparation containing among other ingredients T. diffusa leaves. Moreover, the enhancement of female sexual function was assessed in humans; again the product contained besides T. diffusa other potentially bioactive ingredients. However, with only few exceptions, most of the traditional uses and the experimentally verified bioactivities can currently not be related to a particular compound or compound class. A notable exception is the flavonoid apigenin, which was identified animal experiments as the antinociceptive (An antinociceptive factor reduced the sensitivity to a painful stimuli for the individual.”) principle of T. diffusa. CONCLUSION: In this review, the current knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of members of the genus Turnera, the secondary metabolites reported from Turnera, and experimentally documented bioactivities from Turnera extracts and pure compounds derived from Turnera extracts are compiled. Moreover, some of the most interesting avenues for future research projects are being discussed briefly. These include in particular the aphrodisiac activity of T. diffusa and the antibiotic activity potentiating effect of T. ulmifolia L. against aminoglycoside resistant bacteria.–PMID: 24468305 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
    Estimation of Apigenin, an Anxiolytic Constituent, in Turnera aphrodisiaca.
    Kumar S, Madaan R, Sharma A.
    Author information
    An HPTLC densitometric method has been developed to estimate apigenin in Turnera aphrodisiaca aerial and its segregated parts (leaves, stems, flowers and fruits) so that plant can be standardized on the basis of its bioactive marker. The apigenin content in methanol extract of T. aphrodisiaca aerial parts was found to be about fourteen times less than acid hydrolyzed methanol extract of the plant indicating the presence of most of apigenin in glycosidic form. Amongst different plant parts, flowers possessed maximum content of apigenin followed by leaves. The apigenin content was also determined in three marketed formulations of T. aphrodisiaca viz., NLK, DWSG and SBL. DWSG contained higher content of apigenin. Aerial parts of the plant were collected at bimonthly intervals over a period of one year in the months of January, March, May, July, September and November. The plant material collected in September showed maximum content of apigenin.
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    Show of the Month March 22 2o14
    Recent U.S. snowstorms found to contain elements of entomological warfare
    Epigenetic changes could explain type 2 diabetes
    Top 5 reasons sprouted garlic is good for your health
    The Gut Microbiome and Cancer
    The photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone
    Active extracts of black tea (Camellia Sinensis) induce apoptosis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells via mitochondrial dysfunction
    Recent U.S. snowstorms found to contain elements of entomological warfare
    The U.S. is now a designated military testing ground for real-time biological and entomological warfare applications using Americans as test subjects under public law 105-85
    “Entomological warfare (EW) is a type of biological warfare that uses insects to attack the enemy. The concept has existed for centuries and research and development have continued into the modern era. EW has been used in battle by Japan and several other nations have developed and been accused of using an entomological warfare program.” – –[F16](INTELLIHUB) —Reporting on the “fake snow” or “polymer snow” that has been found in several U.S. cities, including Atlanta, which was mocked by some including “truther” Mark Dice, who wrote it off as a joke early on.[F17]—However, after researching nearly one-hundred accounts or claims of this “fake snow” that seemly won’t melt, burning oddly under flame, smelling like plastic– There is specualtion that there is something else to this issue and that we are not being told the real truth about the recent cold spells.—So far what we do know is that strange polymer fibers have been found in the snow in several states.–We know that snow recently found in several parts of the eastern U.S. smells like burnt plastic when melted under a flame or in a pan (using no butane).[F18] Samples of the snow have even been taken and dried by Henning Kemner, a researcher who posts videos on YouTube, under controlled circumstances. So far, at least one test conducted by Kimner using 2 pounds of fresh snow has shown a rather impressive yield of an ample amount of a dry white powdery residue which Kemner plans to get analyzed spectrally.–However, even to my surprise, new findings posted on YouTube show that America may be under attack by entomological warfare as vast quantities of fleas [insects] have now been found in new snowfall following low-altitude passes by aircraft in Craig, Montana.–Shockingly, this matches up with diabolical tests conducted on human beings by Biological Warfare Unit #731 during the World War II era.–sadly, Don Tow writes—The largest Japanese biological/chemical warfare laboratory was in Ping Fan, a small village near the city of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province in northeast China, known as Unit 731. Unit 731 was a gigantic complex covering six square kilometers and consisted of more than 150 buildings, with living quarters and amenities for up to 3,000 Japanese staff members, 300-500 of whom were medical doctors and scientists. The complex contained various factories. It had 4,500 containers for raising fleas, six giant cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. Approximately 30 kg of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced there in several days. Especially in the area of biological weapons, Unit 731 could be considered to be the largest such laboratory ever in the world. Not only that it was state of the art, it significantly extended the state of the art, partially because the Japanese had no reluctance at all to experiment with live patients, including doing autopsies while the victims were still alive.
    You see under public law substantiated in 1997, all of this has been made possible, allowing the testing of chemicals and biological agents on “Civilian population” as pointed out in my documentary film SHADE the Motion Picture.
    Public Law 105–85 105th Congress
    PUBLIC LAW 105-85- NOV. 18, 1997: USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTSSEC. 1078. RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.(a) PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES. – The Secretary of Defense may not conduct (directly or by contract)(1) any test or experiment involving the use of a chemical agent or biological agent on a civilian population; or(2) any other testing of a chemical agent or biological agent on human subjects.(b) EXCEPTIONS.- Subject to subsections (c), (d), and (e), the prohibition in subsection (a) does not apply to a test or experiment carried out for any of the following purposes:(1) Any peaceful purpose that is related to a medical, therapeutic, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or research activity.[F19]
    (2) Any purpose that is directly related to protection against toxic chemicals or biological weapons and agents.
    (3) Any law enforcement purpose, including any purpose related to riot control.
    So section (a) prohibits these cruel and inhumane chemical and biological tests on humans. Then section (b) says that the prohibitions in section (a) do not apply to tests carried out for virtually any purpose. So section (b) completely negates the prohibitions of section (a).
    Epigenetic changes could explain type 2 diabetes
    Source-Lund University
    People with type 2 diabetes have epigenetic changes on their DNA that healthy individuals do not have. This has been shown in a major study by researchers at Lund University. The researchers also found epigenetic changes in a large number of genes that contribute to reduced insulin production.–“This shows that the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is not only genetic, but also epigenetic,” said Charlotte Ling, who led the study.–Epigenetic changes occur as a result of factors including environment and lifestyle, and can affect the function of genes. Charlotte Ling and her colleagues have analysed insulin- producing cells of both healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. The analysis revealed epigenetic changes in approximately 800 genes in those with type 2 diabetes. Over 100 of the genes also had altered expression and many of these could contribute to reduced insulin production. Reduced insulin production is one of the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes.—In order to work out which is the chicken and which is the egg, i.e. whether the epigenetic changes are a consequence of the disease or if the disease is a result of the changes, the researchers also investigated whether healthy individuals had epigenetic changes caused by age, BMI and raised blood sugar levels.–“We were able to observe that a number of epigenetic changes had already taken place in healthy subjects as a result of age or high BMI, and were therefore able to conclude that these changes could contribute to the development of the disease,” said Charlotte Ling. “Unlike genes that can’t be changed, epigenetic changes are reversible,” added Tasnim Dayeh, first author of the publication in PLOS Genetics.–Drugs that cause epigenetic changes have long been used in the treatment of cancer and epilepsy. The new survey changes the view of epigenetics in relation to diabetes, according to Charlotte Ling.–“It shows that epigenetics is of major significance for type 2 diabetes, and can help us to understand why people develop the condition. This also opens the way for the development of future drugs.”—Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Lund University. —Journal Reference–Tasnim Dayeh, Petr Volkov, Sofia Salö, Elin Hall, Emma Nilsson, Anders H. Olsson, Clare L. Kirkpatrick, Claes B. Wollheim, Lena Eliasson, Tina Rönn, Karl Bacos, Charlotte Ling. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis of Human Pancreatic Islets from Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Donors Identifies Candidate Genes That Influence Insulin Secretion. PLoS Genetics, 2014; 10 (3): e1004160 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004160
    Sprouting Garlic — it has heart-healthy antioxidants
    “Garlic Sprouting Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Activity and Concomitant Changes in the Metabolite Profile”
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Scientists are reporting in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that this type of garlic has even more heart-healthy antioxidant activity than its fresher counterparts.–Jong-Sang Kim and colleagues note that people have used garlic for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Today, people still celebrate its healthful benefits. Eating garlic or taking garlic supplements is touted as a natural way to reduce cholesterol”Click to Continue > by Isaver” levels, blood pressure and heart disease risk. It even may boost the immune system and help fight cancer. But those benefits are for fresh, raw garlic. Sprouted garlic has received much less attention. When seedlings grow into green plants, they make many new compounds, including those that protect the young plant against pathogens. Kim’s group reasoned that the same thing might be happening when green shoots grow from old heads of garlic. Other studies have shown that sprouted beans and grains have increased antioxidant activity, so the team set out to see if the same is true for garlic.—They found that garlic sprouted for five days had higher antioxidant activity than fresher, younger bulbs, and it had different metabolites, suggesting that it also makes different substances. Extracts from this garlic even protected cells in a laboratory dish from certain types of damage. “Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic,” they conclude.
    Top 5 reasons sprouted garlic is good for your health
    A number of people believe that vegetables and fruits that have sprouted are bad for health as they release chemicals that are toxic for the body. While this might be true for certain fruits and vegetables it does not apply to garlic. That might not necessarily be true, especially in the case of sprouted garlic. While unsprouted garlic is known to help reduce cholesterol”Click to Continue > by Isaver”, keep heart disease at bay, beat cancers, heal skin infections and even help in decongesting a clogged up nose; sprouted garlic has now been found to have amazing benefits for your heart health. Read more about the health benefits of garlic. –According to a study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [1] sprouted garlic actually has stronger health benefits than unsprouted ones. They conjectured that the pod when sprouted for five days showed the maximum ability to help the human body. -Wondering how it helps? Here are the health benefits of eating sprouted garlic:
    Can fight against cancer: The process of sprouting in garlic stimulates the production of phytochemicals, that have amazing properties like the ability to block the further spread of malignant cancer cells and inhibit the activity of carcinogens (cancer causing chemicals) on the body. Apart from that, garlic also produces a large amount of anti-oxidants that are very useful in scavenging free”Click to Continue > by Isaver” oxygen radicals – one of the main reasons for the formation of cancers.
    Protects your heart: The same way that phytochemicals block the activity of carcinogens, they also boost enzyme activity and block the activities that leads to plaque formation – an important factor in the formation of blockages in the heart. This thereby helps protect you from suffering from heart disease and heart attacks.
    Can prevent strokes: Garlic on its own is a rich source of anjoene a substance that prevents the formation of blood clots. It also is packed with nitrites – a compound that helps dilate (or widen) the arteries. Both these activities in tandem help prevent the onset of strokes (a condition caused by the formation of a blood clot in the blood vessels of the brain). How is sprouted garlic better in preventing strokes? Well during sprouting the amount of phytochemicals present in the garlic pods helps not only enhance the activity of the already present chemicals in garlic but it also blocks the activity of blood clot forming chemicals – making it a better agent against strokes.
    Helps prevent wrinkles”Click to Continue > by Isaver” and premature ageing: We all know that antioxidants help prevent premature ageing by scavenging free”Click to Continue > by Isaver” radicals in our body – the leading cause of ageing in our body. But according to the study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, garlic pods sprouted for five days have the highest antioxidant activity – making them an elixir for your body. Not only will it prevent the appearance of wrinkles”Click to Continue > by Isaver” but also has the potential to stop the deterioration of organs (something that takes place as we age).
    Strengthens your immune system: If you suffer from frequent cold and cough or infections its time you ate some sprouted garlic. That is because sprouted garlic – especially those that have been sprouted for five days – gives your body a strong dose of anti-oxidants. These anti-oxidants in turn strengthen your immune system by protecting the very cells that kill off infections. So, if you want to stay healthy all year round, here is your chance”Click to Continue > by Isaver” – load up on sprouted garlic.
    How to sprout garlic
    Garlic normally sprouts on its own if left in the open. But if you want to sprout them at home without drying them out here is how you can do it:–Take a pod of garlic and without peeling it gently poke in two tooth picks on either side of the garlic. Make sure you place the toothpicks on the more fleshy part of the pod. Now take a small and narrow glass cup and fill it with water (tap water should do. Do not add anything to the water). Next, using the two toothpicks as stands, balance the garlic pod on the rim of the glass, such that the narrow part is partly submerged in the water.–Keep this glass on a window sill where it will get enough sunlight. Allow it to stay there for five days, making sure the tip is submerged in the water. Once it is sprouted you can wash and eat the garlic
    The Gut Microbiome and Cancer
    Our gut microbiota influence cancer susceptibility of our digestive tract as well as distant organs including the skin, lungs, breasts and liver
    Dr Eva Sirinathsinghji
    Cancer is a leading disease in industrialised nations and the incidence is
    rising sharply in developing nations as a result of aging demographics,
    “westernised” diets, exposure to chemical carcinogens and inactivity. Though
    there are genetic causes for certain cancers that give a significant risk to the
    individual carrier e.g. BRCA1 mutations and breast cancer, most cancers are
    linked to environmental factors. Despite this overriding environmental determinant in cancer susceptibility, we still know relatively little about the environmental factors involved. Recent research on the gut microbiota reveals a complex and important role that this ‘forgotten organ’ may play, not only in preventing or promoting carcinogenesis, but also in modifiying the efficacy of different therapies.–Clues that the bugs in our guts may influence cancer development have been around at least since the late 19th century when anti-tumour effects were observed in sarcoma patients after bacterial infections or following the
    injection of heat-killed bacteria (Coley’s toxin) [1, 2]. In the 1970s, studies
    of germ-free mice suggested tumour-promoting effects of the microbiota in spontaneous, carcinogen-induced and genetically-induced cancer models. Indeed, there is now a well known association of the gut microbiota with inflammation and metabolism, two hallmarks of cancer, with germ-free animals displaying decreased weight gain and resistance to obesity, hypoglycaemia and low insulin. With the advent of metabolomics and deep sequencing techniques, researchers are beginning to decipher the role of specific microbes as well as specific global microbiotic profiles associated with different cancers. These discoveries are leading to new avenues of research into cancer prevention and treatment.
    One bug, two bugs, all or none?
    The relationship between our gut microbiota and cancer appears to be complex,
    involving both specific microbial species as well as dysregulation of the global
    microbiota, called dysbiosis. Epidemiological studies have linked a number of
    cancers to individual microbes, e.g. the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical
    cancer; H.pylori in gastric cancer; chronic infection in hepatitis B virus
    (HBV); hepatitis c virus (HCV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); chronic
    Salmonella enterica subsp infection in gallbladder cancer; infection with
    Chlamydia pneumonia in the development of lung cancer; and infection with
    Haemophilus influenza and Candida albicans in the development of lower
    respiratory tract malignancies [3-6]. The clearest example for bacterially
    driven carcinogenesis is H.pylori infection, with epidemiological studies
    suggesting it is responsible for 1-3 % of gastric cancer cases of H.pylori
    infected individuals. This microbe has been widely defined as a carcinogen by public health institutions including the International Agency for Research on Cancer [7].—Most of the microbiome differences seen in cancer studies involve dysbiosis of the overall microbial community. Even in those ‘one microbe –one disease’ cases, the story appears more complicated than it seems. With H. pylori infection and gastric cancer, mice colonised with this species alone develop fewer gastric tumours than those colonised with a complex mixture of species [8]. It is interesting to note that H.pylori is also linked to a lower risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in humans, emphasising the organ-specific effect of bacterial communities on carcinogenesis [9]. The emerging understanding of colorectal cancer is similarly complex, with metagenomic studies showing underrepresentation of two bacterial phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as overrepresentation of the invasive Fusobacterium nuculeatum species (previously associated with periodontis and appendicitis) in the tumours [10, 11]. Even though there were consistent patterns of dysbiosis between the patients in these studies, the overall microbiotas between tumours and noncancerous regions of the colon of individual patients were more similar to
    each other than they were to tumours of other patients or colon samples from unaffected patients. This intricate association with cancer suggests that any therapy involving the gut microbiota many rely on individualised therapies for successful treatment. Furthermore, these associations to do not prove causation so further analysis is much needed. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has also been linked to cancers of distant organs, exemplified by cancers of the liver and pancreas, which do not have a known microbiota of their own. The role of the gut microbiota therefore appears wide-reaching, affecting much more than the gut itself [12-14].
    How do microbiota influence cancer susceptibility?
    There are many mechanisms by which gut microbiota may alter susceptibility to
    cancers including activation of the innate immune system, modulation of
    inflammation, influencing gene expression as well as the genomic stability of
    host cells. A failure of the intestinal barrier to limit host-microbiota
    interactions is also thought to be important. Anatomical separation between the host and microbes is a crucial first line of defence and is maintained through an intact epithelial lining and mucosal layer, as well as a sensing system that detects and eliminates bacteria. Consistently, ulcerative colitis, a condition that disrupts the barrier, increases the risk of colon cancers. Studies that have induced barrier failure in lab animals have also shown that carcinogens are more likely to pass through a disrupted gut lining, leading to increased tumour formation in local and distant organs [15]