Reply To: Scripts 2013

Published by EK on

Forums Herbalist Scripts Scripts 2013 Reply To: Scripts 2013

Avatar photoEK

    Walmart’s Death Grip On Groceries Is Making Life Worse For Millions Of People (Hard Times USA)
    This article was published in partnership with the Institute for Local Self-Reliance.
    Walmart’s growing control of our food system has been to intensify the rural and urban poverty that drives unhealthy food choices—In Springfield -This Midwestern city provides a chilling look at where Walmart wants to take our food system.—-Springfield is one of nearly 40 metro areas where Walmart now captures about half or more of consumer spending on groceries, according to Metro Market Studies. Springfield area residents spend just over $1 billion on groceries each year, and one of every two of those dollars flows into a Walmart cash register. The chain has 20 stores in the area and shows no signs of slowing its growth. Its latest proposal, a store just south of the city’s downtown, has provoked widespread protest. Opponents say Walmart already has an overbearing presence in the region and argue that this new store would undermine nearby grocery stores, including a 63-year-old family-owned business which still provides delivery for its elderly customers. A few days before the First Lady’s visit, the City Council voted 5-4 to approve what will be Walmart’s 21st store in the community[F1].—As Springfield goes, so goes the rest of the country, if Walmart has its way. Nationally, the retailer’s share of the grocery market now stands at 25 percent. That’s up from 4 percent just 16 years ago. Walmart’s tightening grip on the food system is unprecedented in U.S. history. Even A&P — often referred to as the Walmart of its day — accounted for only about 12 percent of grocery sales at its height in the 1940s. Its market share was kept in check in part by the federal government, which won an antitrust case against A&P in 1946. The contrast to today’s casual acceptance of Walmart’s market power could not be more stark.[F2]—Having gained more say over our food supply than Monsanto, Kraft, or Tyson, Walmart has been working overtime to present itself as a benevolent king. It has upped its donations to food pantries, reduced sodium and sugars in some of its store-brand products, and recast its relentless expansion as a solution to “food deserts.” In 2011, it pledged to build 275-300 stores “in or near” low-income communities lacking grocery stores.[F3] The Springfield store Obama visited is one of 86 such stores Walmart has since opened. Situated half a mile from the southwestern corner of a census tract identified as underserved by the USDA, the store qualifies as “near” a food desert. Other grocery stores are likewise perched on the edge of this tract. Although Walmart has made food deserts the vanguard of its PR strategy in urban areas, most of the stores the chain has built or proposed in cities like Chicago and Washington D.C. are in fact just blocks from established supermarkets, many unionized or locally owned. As it pushes into cities, Walmart’s primary aim is not to fill gaps but to grab market share.—-***
    The real effect of Walmart’s takeover of our food system has been to intensify the rural and urban poverty that drives unhealthy food choices. Poverty has a strong negative effect on diet, regardless of whether there is a grocery store in the neighborhood or not, a major 15-year study published in 2011 in the Archives of Internal Medicine found. Access to fresh food cannot change the bottom-line reality that cheap, calorie-dense processed foods and fast food are financially logical choices for far too many American households. And their numbers are growing right alongside Walmart. Like Midas in reverse, Walmart extracts wealth and pushes down incomes in every community it touches, from the rural areas that produce food for its shelves to the neighborhoods that host its stores.—-Walmart signed a deal with Monsanto last year to sell their unlabeled GMO corn that they want you to eat. Numerous studies show GMO corn is extremely hazardous to our health.It’s all about money ,they don’t care if you go sterile or worse.—- Walmart has made it harder for farmers and food workers to earn a living. Its rapid rise as a grocer triggered a wave of mergers among food companies, which, by combining forces, hoped to become big enough to supply Walmart without getting crushed in the process. Today, food processing is more concentrated than ever. Four meatpackers slaughter 85 percent of the nation’s beef. One dairy company handles 40 percent of our milk, including 70 percent of the milk produced in New England. With fewer buyers, farmers are struggling to get a fair price. Between 1995 and 2009, farmers saw their share of each consumer dollar spent on beef fall from 59 to 42 cents [7]. Their cut of the consumer milk dollar likewise fell from 44 to 36 cents. For pork, it fell from 45 to 25 cents and, for apples, from 29 to 19 cents. —-Onto this grim reality, Walmart has grafted a much-publicized initiative to sell more locally grown fruits and vegetables. Clambering aboard the “buy local” trend undoubtedly helps Walmart’s marketing, but, as Missouri-based National Public Radio journalist Abbie Fentress Swanson reported [8] in February, “there’s little evidence of small farmers benefiting, at least in the Midwest.” Walmart, which defines “local” as grown in the same state, has increased its sales of local produce mainly by relying on large industrial growers. Small farmers, meanwhile, have fewer opportunities to reach consumers, as independent grocers and smaller chains shrink and disappear. — Food production workers are being squeezed too. The average slaughterhouse wage has fallen 9 percent since 1999. Forced unpaid labor at food processing plants is on the rise. Last year, a Louisiana seafood plant that supplies Walmart was convicted of forcing employees to work in unsafe conditions for less than minimum wage. Some workers reported peeling and boiling crawfish in shifts that spanned 24 hours. —The tragic irony is that many food-producing regions, with their local economies dismantled and poverty on the rise, are now themselves lacking grocery stores. The USDA has designated large swaths of the farm belt [9], including many agricultural areas near Springfield, as food deserts. –One might imagine that squeezing farmers and food workers would yield lower prices for consumers. But that hasn’t been the case. Grocery prices have been rising. There are multiple reasons for this, but corporate concentration is at least partly to blame. For most foods, the spread between what consumers pay and how much farmers receive has been widening. Food processors and big retailers are pocketing the difference. Even as Walmart touts lower prices than its competitors, the company’s reorganization of our food system has had the effect of raising grocery prices overall. –As Walmart stores multiply, fewer families can afford to eat well.[F4] The company claims it stores bring economic development and employment, but the empirical evidence indicates otherwise. A study [10] published in 2008 in the Journal of Urban Economics examined about 3,000 Walmart store openings nationally and found that each store caused a net decline of about 150 jobs (as competing retailers downsized and closed) and lowered total wages paid to retail workers. Other research [11] by the economic consulting firm Civic Economics has found that, when locally owned businesses are replaced by big-box stores, dollars that once circulated in the community, supporting other businesses and jobs, instead leak out. These shifts may explain the findings of another study [12], published in Social Science Quarterly in 2006, which cut straight to the bottom line: neighborhoods where Walmart opens end up with higher poverty rates and more food-stamp usage than places where the retailer does not expand. [F5]–This year, Walmart plans to open between 220 and 240 stores in the U.S., as it marches steadily on in its quest to further control the grocery market. Policymakers at every level, from city councilors to federal antitrust regulators, should be standing in its way. Very few are. Growing numbers of people, though, are drawing the line, from the Walmart employees who have led a string of remarkable strikes against the company, to the coalition of small business, labor, and community groups that recently forced Walmart to step back [13] from its plans to unroll stores across New York City. –Back in Springfield, as Michelle Obama was delivering her remarks, framed by a seductive backdrop of oranges and lemons, a citizens group called Stand Up to Walmart [14] was also at work, launching a referendum drive to overturn the City Council’s vote and block Walmart from gaining any more ground in the city.
    More Parents Say They Won’t Vaccinate Daughters Against HPV
    Mar. 18, 2013 — A rising percentage of parents say they won’t have their teen daughters vaccinated to protect against the human papilloma virus, even though physicians are increasingly recommending adolescent vaccinations, a study by Mayo Clinic and others shows. More than 2 in 5 parents surveyed believe the HPV vaccine is unnecessary, and a growing number worry about potential side effects, researchers found. The findings are published in the new issue of the journal Pediatrics.—In all, researchers looked at three vaccines routinely recommended for U.S. teens: a vaccine to protect against the sexually transmitted HPV; Tdap, for tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis; and the meningococcal conjugate vaccine, or MCV4 vaccine. While the up-to-date immunization rates rose for all three vaccines, the proportion of girls fully immunized against HPV (three doses over six months) was substantially lower than the proportion for the other two vaccines.–Five years ago, 40 percent of parents surveyed said they wouldn’t vaccinate their girls against HPV. In 2009, that rose to 41 percent, and in 2010, to 44 percent.–“That’s the opposite direction that rate should be going,” says senior researcher Robert Jacobson, M.D., a pediatrician with the Mayo Clinic Children’s Center.–Parents concerned about HPV vaccine safety rose from 5 percent in 2008 to 16 percent in 2010, while less than 1 percent worried about the safety of the Tdap and MCV4 vaccines, the study found.—During the same years, more and more studies showed how safe and effective the HPV vaccine is in this age group, says Dr. Jacobson, who has taken part in the safety review committees for two such studies. The vaccine prevents cervical cancer and other genital cancers by preventing the HPV infections that lead to those cancers, he says.[F6]–Researchers analyzed vaccination data for teens ages 13 to 17 in the 2008-10 National Immunization Survey of Teens. They found that as of 2010, 8 of 10 teens had the Tdap vaccine and roughly 63 percent had the MCV4 vaccine. Only about one-third of girls were immunized against HPV.–The HPV vaccination rate did rise; it was only 16 percent in 2008. But at the same time, more parents reported that they did not intend to have their daughters vaccinated for HPV. Among the reasons they gave: the vaccine was not recommended; lack of knowledge; it is unnecessary; the vaccine is inappropriate for the child’s age; worry about safety/side effects; and the child isn’t sexually active.–According to parents surveyed, more clinicians are recommending the HPV vaccine, but still, they are advising it only about half the time. The facts show the vaccine is necessary, Dr. Jacobson says.—–“HPV causes essentially 100 percent of cervical cancer and 50 percent of all Americans get infected at least once with HPV. It’s a silent infection. You cannot tell when you’ve been exposed or when you have it,” he says. “While most HPV infections clear, a percentage linger and start the process of cancerous changes. The HPV vaccine is an anti-cancer vaccine.”[F7]Dr. Jacobson says the vaccine is more effective in younger adolescents than older teens. Mayo Clinic routinely starts the series at age 9.—“The vaccine works better the younger the child is, and it doesn’t work after the child is grown up and is exposed to the virus, so our message should be: ‘Give this vaccine now to your child while your child is young and responsive to it,'[F8]” says Dr. Jacobson, medical director of the Employee and Community Health Immunization Program at Mayo Clinic.
    Study co-authors include Paul Darden, M.D., David Thompson, Ph.D., Jessica Hale, and Monique Naifeh, M.D., M.P.H., University of Oklahoma; and James Roberts, M.D., M.P.H., and Charlene Pope, Medical University of South Carolina.–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Mayo Clinic. –Journal Reference-Paul M. Darden, David M. Thompson, James R. Roberts, Jessica J. Hale, Charlene Pope, Monique Naifeh, and Robert M. Jacobson. Reasons for Not Vaccinating Adolescents: National Immunization Survey of Teens, 2008–2010. Pediatrics, March 18, 2013 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-2384
    Organic Labels Bias Consumers Perceptions Through the ‘Health Halo Effect
    Apr. 1, 2013 — The word “organic” can mean many things to consumers. Even so, the power of an organic label can be very strong: studies have shown that this simple label can lead us to think that a food is healthier,[F9] through what is known as the ‘health halo effect’. But can this bias go further?–A study by Cornell University’s Food and Brand Lab researchers Wan-chen Jenny Lee, Mitsuru Shimizu, Kevin M. Kniffin and Brian Wansink set out to answer this question. Their study shows that an organic label can influence much more than health views: perceptions of taste, calories and value can be significantly altered when a food is labeled “organic.” Certain people also appear to be more susceptible to this ‘health halo’ effect than others…115 people were recruited from a local shopping mall in Ithaca, New York to participate in this study. Participants were asked to evaluate 3 pairs of products — 2 yogurts, 2 cookies and 2 potato chip portions[F10]. One item from each food pair was labeled “organic,” while the other was labeled “regular.” The trick to this study was: all of the product pairs were organic and identical! Participants were asked to rate the taste and caloric content of each item, and how much they would be willing to pay for the items. A questionnaire also inquired about their environmental and shopping habits.[F11]–Even though these foods were all the same, the “organic” label greatly influenced people’s perceptions. The cookies and yogurt were estimated to have significantly fewer calories when labeled “organic” and people were willing to pay up to 23.4% more for them. The nutritional aspects of these foods were also greatly biased by the health halo effect. The “organic” cookies and yogurt were said to taste ‘lower in fat’ than the “regular” variety, and the “organic” cookies and chips were thought to be more nutritious![F12] The label even tricked people’s taste buds: when perceived as “organic,” chips seemed more appetizing and yogurt was judged to be more flavorful. “Regular” cookies were reported to taste better–possibly because people often believe healthy foods are not tasty. All of these foods were exactly the same, but a simple organic label made all the difference!—Who is less susceptible? This study found that people who regularly read nutrition labels, those who regularly buy organic food, and those who exhibit pro-environmental behaviors (such as recycling or hiking) are less susceptible to the organic ‘health halo’ effect. So, if you do not consider yourself in one these groups, take a closer look when shopping for organic foods — they are, after all, still cookies and chips!–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Cornell Food & Brand Lab. The original article was written by Rachel Eklund and Wan-chen Jenny Lee. –Journal Reference-Wan-chen Jenny Lee, Mitsuru Shimizu, Kevin M. Kniffin, Brian Wansink. You taste what you see: Do organic labels bias taste perceptions? Food Quality and Preference, 2013; 29 (1): 33 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2013.01.010
    Water Collecting and Extracting
    Tree Transpiration Technique:
    In the morning, dew and humidity is abundant, tie a bag around a leafy green tree, bush or shrub branch, use a twist tie or rubber band to wrap around the open end of the bag like so- In a few hours you should see water collecting at the bottom of the bag, just untie from the branch and drink! It’s important to use a leafy green tree or branch that is non-poisonous, the water will taste like whatever plant you choose. It isn’t much but is better than nothing.
    Dew Container + Grass Technique:
    The EASIEST way to collect water from air is just place a plastic bowl over grass in the sun, moisture will collect on the inside, when ready, lift the plastic bowl and swish the water condensation around and there you have it, free water
    Below-ground Still Technique:
    Another water collection technique is the below-ground Still Technique, to do this you would need a thin plastic bag, a digging tool, a water container, a drinking tube (optional) and a rock.—Find a moist area that gets a fair amount of sunlight, it’s best to use these water collection techniques in the morning when dew and humidity is abundant (if you live in a dry humid area is a plus).
    1) Dig a hole in the soil about three feet across and two feet deep, make sure the top soil is green with grass and somewhat moist and soft soil, the bottom of the hole should be flat for your container.
    2) Place the container in the hole.
    3) Now place the plastic over the hole.
    4) Cover the sides of the plastic with large rocks to keep it secure so when you place the weight on top of the plastic that it won’t collapse.
    5) Now place the rock or weight in the middle just over the container, let it hang about 15-18 inches directly over the container.
    The moisture from the ground reacts from the heat of the sun to produce condensation on the inside of the plastic, you can also add green leafy vegetation inside the hole for more moisture content (basically any organic material that has moisture). To collect the water, just remove the rock and grab the container. This technique can produce up to one quart of water per day.
    (There are other ways to use this same technique)
    If you use this belowground tehnique you should filter out any sediment that may end up in the container
    Blocking EMF’s—
    What you can do is take a cool mist or hot mist humidifier—add colloidial Silver-Essential oils-Iodine-Aspirin –or anything you wish to nebulize or vapour in the air this will form a moisture or mist in the air that can assist in blocking out the frequencies you maybe getting hit with while sleeping –and may find a more restful sleep and feel less pain when awakened –due to the reducing effect this will have
    Sustainable Freedom- Surging Opposition to Agenda 21, “Sustainable Development”
    Alabama banned it. The Republican National Committee (RNC) officially opposes it. Even a group of Democrats has now joined the fight. And the movement to stop it is growing stronger every single day. Twenty years after the United Nations birthed the global “sustainable development” scheme known as Agenda 21, its tentacles have stretched across America into every level of government. But the battle to stop it is in full swing.—While the planetary plot was never ratified by the U.S. Senate, the executive branch has played a crucial role in its success thus far, using grants and mandates to foist it on the American people. Bush, Clinton, and Obama all worked on implementing it. But now, activists from across the political spectrum — Tea Party groups, Occupy Wall Street types, Republicans, liberals, and moderates — are turning up the heat. Scientists are defecting in record numbers, too.—-Of course, opposition has existed all along, though it was largely ignored by the establishment press and the political class. In the United States in recent years, however, outrage over the controversial global plan has become overwhelming — impossible to conceal any longer. So in response to the growing nationwide outcry, cities, counties, political parties, and states have all started to take action to defend citizens and their rights. It is paying off; more victories are being announced almost weekly.
    “Think globally, act locally”—-“Think globally, act locally” has been the marching slogan of the environmental Left for many years, as its partisans have worked to fasten, incrementally, more and more of Agenda 21’s global mandates on local communities. In the past few years, opponents of Agenda 21 have gone to the same playbook.—–Local governments, for example, are withdrawing en masse from the UN’s chief mechanism for foisting the plan on communities: ICLEI-Local Governments for Local Environmental Initiatives — formerly known as the International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives. Dozens of cities and counties have already withdrawn from ICLEI in recent years. In fact, membership in the international organization has declined from over 600 local governments in America in 2009 to well under 550 today. And a new wave of withdrawals is expected in 2012 as public outrage over the schemes and the dangers they represent to freedom continues to build.—“This organization is a threat to our individual rights and our local government’s sovereignty in decision-making,” noted College Station, Texas, City Councilman Jess Fields when announcing that the local government was withdrawing from ICLEI, citing UN documents to highlight the danger. “It is an insidious, extreme institution that does not represent our citizens, and for our taxpayers to continue to fund it would be ridiculous.”—
    “We do not need international organizations leading the way for us in how we develop our planning and development tools and regulations,” Fields added. “It is better for policies to reflect the actual needs of our community than some amorphous concept of greenness or sustainability, promoted by an overarching international body.”—Shortly after College Station’s withdrawal, Irving, Texas, also dropped its membership. “Agenda 21 is becoming a hot issue in Texas because of its connection to the United Nations,” noted activist Frank Koch, founder of the grass-roots group Stop Agenda 21 in Texas working to expose and fight the UN scheme in the Lone Star State. “I applaud Irving, Texas, for having the wisdom to join the growing number of cities rejecting this insidious program.”———-Ocean County, New Jersey, rejected the scheme recently as well. “According to Agenda 21 policy, social justice is described as the right and opportunity of all people to benefit equally from the resources afforded us by society and the environment which would be accomplished by socialist/communist redistribution of wealth,” county lawmakers said in a resolution slamming ICLEI and the UN.
    Statement by States
    State officials all across the country, meanwhile, are fighting back as well. Alabama recently became the first state to formally ban Agenda 21 within its territory, when Governor Robert Bentley signed into law strongly worded legislation prohibiting any involvement in the scheme by state agencies or local governments. The legislation was passed unanimously in both the Alabama House and Senate.–“The State of Alabama and all political subdivisions may not adopt or implement policy recommendations that deliberately or inadvertently infringe or restrict private property rights without due process, as may be required by policy recommendations originating in, or traceable to ‘Agenda 21,’” the law states.—The people of Alabama, acting through their elected representatives — not UN bureaucrats — have the authority to develop the state’s environmental and development policies, the official synopsis of the law explains. Therefore, infringements on the property rights of citizens linked to “any other international law or ancillary plan of action that contravenes the Constitution of the United States or the Constitution of the State of Alabama” are also prohibited under the new measure.—–As the law points out, the UN has enlisted a broad array of non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations in its effort to foist Agenda 21 on the world, most notably the Germany-based ICLEI. But the new measure takes direct aim at that problem, too: “The State of Alabama and all political subdivisions may not enter into any agreement, expend any sum of money, or receive funds contracting services, or giving financial aid to or from” any such entities, as defined in Agenda 21 documents.—Responding to an article about the new law, popular U.K. Telegraph columnist James Delingpole said Alabama had just “helped save the world” with its victory against Agenda 21. Citing Delingpole’s piece, Investor’s Business Daily said in an editorial: “Alabama has just told the U.N. and the EPA what they need to be told — don’t tread on us.” The alternative media, of course, praised the landmark achievement as well.
    Before Alabama adopted its tough law, lawmakers in Arizona almost succeeded in adopting a similar measure. The popular bill would have prohibited all state agencies and political subdivisions from implementing or supporting any portion of the UN’s so-called “sustainable development” scheme. After being approved by the state Senate, it cleared several initial hurdles in Arizona’s House of Representatives. The legislative session, however, ended before the measure obtained final approval.
    Tennessee recently adopted a strongly worded resolution slamming the UN scheme as “insidious” and “socialist.” “This United Nations Agenda 21 plan of radical so-called ‘sustainable development’ views the American way of life of private property ownership, single-family homes, private car ownership and individual travel choices, and privately owned farms all as destructive to the environment,” the resolution explains. “We hereby endorse rejection of its radical policies and rejection of any grant monies attached to it.”
    Kansas, New Hampshire, Arkansas, Louisiana, and numerous other state legislatures are also working on similar anti-Agenda 21 measures.
    Going Forward———The RNC adopted a strongly worded resolution slamming Agenda 21. “The United Nations Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of extreme environmentalism, social engineering, and global political control,” it states, noting that the scheme would — by its own admission in official documents — use “socialist” and “communist” redistribution of wealth to advance the UN’s vision of so-called “social justice.”—-“The Republican National Committee recognizes the destructive and insidious nature of United Nations Agenda 21 and hereby exposes to the public and public policy makers the dangerous intent of the plan,” it added.—-Numerous state parties followed suit. The Texas GOP, for example, passed a resolution denouncing Agenda 21 as a serious threat to the U.S. Constitution, the individual rights of Americans, and the institution of private property.
    On June 2, North Carolina’s GOP also adopted a resolution.—A broad array of activists and organizations ranging from Democrats Against UN Agenda 21 to The John Birch Society, Americans for Prosperity, Tom DeWeese’s American Policy Center, and numerous other conservative and libertarian groups has put the UN scheme on the map. And candidates for office all across the land, from city and county government to state legislatures, to governor (North Carolina) to the U.S. Senate (Texas), have made opposition to Agenda 21 a focal point of their campaigns.——-Former Charlotte, North Carolina, Mayor Pat McCrory, who is now the Republican candidate for governor of the Tar Heel State, says he is “proud to support” the NCGOP’s resolution against Agenda 21.—-
    “Under the guise of world sustainability the plan establishes a regime of rules that attempt to bypass Congress and the American people, handing … power over vast areas of the US economy to unelected UN bureaucrats,” said insurgent Tea Party Republican Ted Cruz, a leading contender in Texas’ U.S. Senate race. “Agenda 21 is wrong, and it must be stopped.”
    When asked by The New American at Rio+20 about the growing U.S. opposition and Alabama’s latest prohibition in particular, ICLEI President David Cadman seemed perplexed. “I haven’t seen that about Alabama, and I’m quite surprised about that,” he said, adding that he did not think states could pass such laws. —-
    On the growing backlash against “sustainability” more generally, Cadman also sounded somewhat confused. “I’ve got to confess I don’t really understand the Tea Party…. We find that [opposition] nowhere else but in America,” he said. “I think, quite frankly, a lot of that is because America is not well served by its media…. There are times when I’ll turn on Fox News, and I’ll say, ‘This wouldn’t be allowed in Canada,’” Cadman added, pointing to Canadian laws that force media outlets to give “both sides of the story.”[F13] My Comment here—this fellow is smoking a drug of illusion—- reality, the establishment press and an assortment of attack dogs including UN-funded propaganda organs and the discredited Southern Poverty Law Center are fighting back hard against the opposition. But each time Agenda 21 critics are attacked, a tsunami of activists exposing the UN scheme flood the article’s comment section with links to the global body’s documents. And, perhaps more importantly, awareness of the global plan spreads even further — with the growing resistance that entails.
    You Don’t ‘Own’ Your Own Genes- Researchers Raise Alarm About Loss of Individual ‘Genomic Liberty’ Due to Gene Patents
    Mar. 25, 2013 — Humans don’t “own” their own genes, the cellular chemicals that define who they are and what diseases they might be at risk for. Through more than 40,000 patents on DNA molecules, companies have essentially claimed the entire human genome for profit, report two researchers who analyzed the patents on human DNA.—Their study, published March 25 in the journal Genome Medicine, raises an alarm about the loss of individual “genomic liberty.”—-In their new analysis, the research team examined two types of patented DNA sequences: long and short fragments. They discovered that 41 percent of the human genome is covered by longer DNA patents that often cover whole genes. They also found that, because many genes share similar sequences within their genetic structure, if all of the “short sequence” patents were allowed in aggregate, they could account for 100 percent of the genome.—Furthermore, the study’s lead author, Dr. Christopher E. Mason of Weill Cornell Medical College, and the study’s co-author, Dr. Jeffrey Rosenfeld, an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey and a member of the High Performance and Research Computing Group, found that short sequences from patents also cover virtually the entire genome — even outside of genes.—“If these patents are enforced, our genomic liberty is lost,” says Dr. Mason, an assistant professor of physiology and biophysics and computational genomics in computational biomedicine at the Institute for Computational Biomedicine at Weill Cornell. “Just as we enter the era of personalized medicine, we are ironically living in the most restrictive age of genomics. You have to ask, how is it possible that my doctor cannot look at my DNA without being concerned about patent infringement?”—The U.S. Supreme Court will review genomic patent rights in an upcoming hearing on April 15. At issue is the right of a molecular diagnostic company to claim patents not only on two key breast and ovarian cancer genes — BRCA1 and BRCA2 — but also on any small sequence of code within BRCA1, including a striking patent for only 15 nucleotides.—In its study, the research team matched small sequences within BRCA1 to other genes and found that just this one molecular diagnostic company’s patents also covered at least 689 other human genes — most of which have nothing to do with breast or ovarian cancer; rather, its patents cover 19 other cancers as well as genes involved in brain development and heart functioning.—“This means if the Supreme Court upholds the current scope of the patents, no physician or researcher can study the DNA of these genes from their patients, and no diagnostic test or drug can be developed based on any of these genes without infringing a patent,” says Dr. Mason.
    One Patented Sequence Matched More Than 91 Percent of Human Genes
    Dr. Mason undertook the study because he realized that his research into brain and cancer disorders inevitably involved studying genes that were protected by patents.—Under U.S. patent law, genes can be patented by those researchers, either at companies or institutions, who are first to find a gene that promises a useful application, such as for a diagnostic test. For example, the patents received by a company in the 1990s on BRCA1 and BRCA2 enables it to offer a diagnostic test to women who may have, or may be at risk for, breast or ovarian cancer due to mutations in one or both of these genes. Women and their doctors have no choice but to use the services of the patents’ owner, which costs $3,000 per test, “whereas any of the hundreds of clinical laboratories around the country could perform such a test for possibly much less,” says Dr. Mason.—The impact on these patents is equally onerous on research,[F14] Dr. Mason adds.—“Almost every day, I come across a gene that is patented — a situation that is common for every geneticist in every lab,” says Dr. Mason.—-Dr. Mason and his research partner sought to determine how many other genes may be impacted by gene patents, as well as the overall landscape of intellectual property on the human genome.—To conduct the study, Dr. Mason and Dr. Rosenfeld examined the structure of the human genome in the context of two types of patented sequences: short and long fragments of DNA. They used matches to known genes that were confirmed to be present in patent claims, ranging from as few as 15 nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) to the full length of all patented DNA fragments.—Before examining the patented sequences, the researchers first calculated how many genes had common segments of 15 nucleotide (15mer), and found that every gene in the human genome matched at least one other gene in this respect, ranging from as few as five matches 15mer to as many as 7,688 gene matches. They also discovered that 99.999 percent of 15mers in the human genome are repeated at least twice.—“This demonstrates that short patent sequences are extremely non-specific and that a 15mer claim from one gene will always cross-match and patent a portion of another gene as well,” says Dr. Mason. “This means it is actually impossible to have a 15mer patent for just one gene.”—Next, researchers examined the total sequence space in human genes covered by 15mers in current patent claims. They found 58 patents whose claims covered at least 10 percent of all bases of all human genes. The broadest patent claimed sequences that matched 91.5 percent of human genes. Then, when they took existing gene patents and matched patented 15mers to known genes, they discovered that 100 percent of known genes are patented.—“There is a real controversy regarding gene ownership due to the overlap of many competing patent claims. It is unclear who really owns the rights to any gene,” says Dr. Rosenfeld. “While the Supreme Court is hearing one case concerning just the BRCA1 patent, there are also many other patents whose claims would cover those same genes. Do we need to go through every gene to look at who made the first claim to that gene, even if only one small part? If we resort to this rule, then the first patents to be granted for any DNA will have a vast claim over portions of the human genome.”–A further issue of concern is that patents on DNA can readily cross species boundaries. A company can have a patent that they received for cow breeding and have that patent cover a large percentage of human genes. Indeed, the researchers found that one company owns the rights to 84 percent of all human genes for a patent they received for cow breeding. “It seems silly that a patent designed to study cow genetics also claims the majority of human genes,” says Dr. Rosenfeld.—Finally, they also examined the impact of longer claimed DNA sequences from existing gene patents, which ranged from a few dozen bases up to thousands of bases of DNA, and found that these long, claimed sequences matched 41 percent (9,361) of human genes. Their analysis concluded that almost all clinically relevant genes have already been patented, especially for short sequence patents, showing all human genes are patented many times over.—“This is, so to speak, patently ridiculous,” adds Dr. Mason. “If patent claims that use these small DNA sequences are upheld, it could potentially create a situation where a piece of every gene in the human genome is patented by a phalanx of competing patents.”—In their discussion, the researchers argue that the U.S. Supreme Court now has a chance to shape the balance between the medical good versus inventor protection, adding that, in their opinion, the court should limit the patenting of existing nucleotide sequences, due to their broad scope and non-specificity in the human genome.-“I am extremely pro-patent, but I simply believe that people should not be able to patent a product of nature,” Dr. Mason says. “Moreover, I believe that individuals have an innate right to their own genome, or to allow their doctor to look at that genome, just like the lungs or kidneys. Failure to resolve these ambiguities perpetuates a direct threat to genomic liberty, or the right to one’s own DNA.”—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Weill Cornell Medical College. — Journal Reference-Jeffrey Rosenfeld, and Christopher E Mason. Pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome. Genome Medicine, 2013 (in press) DOI: 10.1186/gm431
    [F1]More like bought the votes for this approval
    [F2]Reason why today this is not the case –is due to the fact the gov’t has shares in the food industry such as Monsanto who sells a ton of Crap they call food to Walmart
    [F3]The perfect weapon if you can’t starve people then the next best thing is to poison them
    [F4]AN Oxy Moron if anyone would see this—the more you support this black hole the bigger and blacker it gets
    [F5]It would appear Walmart causes Poverty
    [F6]There is No evidence to this—in fact if a womans immune system is healthy with the adequate immune minerals and fats then this is totally unnecessary
    [F8]Do I smell STERILIZATION
    [F9]The concept is an illusion —lead us to think is exactly this—with cross contamination and adulterations from genetics and other pollutants—unless the food is grown in isolation then at best you have a convulated food
    [F10]Cookies and Potato Chips are not an organic food in the sense that the foods are grown and come fresh—these are heated and filled with sugars or acrylamide that is also a Natural byproduct but not healthy or potentially unhealthy
    [F11]This is Truly a Deception the elements we should really be looking for –is what was it mixed with –soy, canola, aspartame, HFCS, molasses- agave—colouring agents-metal contaminants-nano particles-aborted baby flavouring agents—these are things that is in the so called organic foods today irrespective of governing bodies regulations
    [F12]Junk Food —glorified junk food —this shows 2 things—people are really ignorant of what is really food –and 2nd corporations realize that people are ignorant enough and conditioned enough to realize that if you label things a certain way people will buy them irrespective of nutrional conten or lack thereof–
    [F13]Not sure what this fellow is smoking —canada has not give both sides of the news for over 20 years—this is what is called an illusion not even remotely close to the truth—the only way anyone gets both sides is if you watch both sides of the world and not just watch your indigenious media
    [F14]In other words the facts are going to based on the companies providing the services
    TOP A
    Show of The Month April 13 2013
    Morgellon Remedies
    How to Make A Filter
    Filtration and Distillation
    Quick reference chart for RADAR neurological reprogramming experiments and kill ratio statistics
    Recharging Alkalines
    Treating Skin Blemishes
    Morgellon Remedies
    Spray topical—mix a salt solution —while simmering or heating water add table salt to this until saturated ( mix in the salt little at a time—allow it to dissolve and repeat this til the water can no longer dissolve the salt) then add TSP 20 grams—and vinegar 2 oz and distilled water 2 cups stir this til it dissolves—when it has stop the stove pour into a container ( preferably glass) do not pour in if the solution is to hot—allow to cool before pouring
    Add the content to a spray bottle—then spray afflicted areas—-use on pets as well—to alleviate the blotching and the out break
    THINGS TO DO IN CONJUNCTION WITH THIS—if applying to animals do not feed them any grain based foods or mixes –these grains and soy will further exasperate the out break –the same is applicable to people—NO RICE-CORN-PASTA-CEREAL-BREAD-PASTRIES-BOXED OR BAGGED GRAIN TYPE FOODS—DO NOT FEED ANIMALS THESE EITHER—NO MILK BONE OR COOKIE SNACKS FOR THE DOGS OR CATS OR ANY OTHER CARNIVORE LIKE ANIMALS
    Creams and Lotions
    Make a cream or lotion by adding either sunflower lecithin or egg yolk lecithin to assist the cells in the skin to restore there connections –to make add your bees wax—salt and oils such as coconut—palm or shea butter or any other base you desire ( avoid soy )—add an essential oil of choice—if you wish a disinfectant then apply the woodier oils such as rosemary thyme sage pine fir etc —citrus lime lemon orange etc once you melt your fats the in the blender add your salt more essential oils —you can add as a preservative either rosemary essential oil or sage or ( BHT) water ( distilled) and alcohol ( vodka-gin-or any clear base alcohol) about 1 oz water you will gradually increase to desired levels of thickness for the cream or lotion—use xanthium gum to bind the materials so they do not separate( fat and water will separate unless you have a binding agent)blend this altogether adding water as needed and xanthium—til you get the desired texcture—put in glass jar and apply after cleaning areas—will help in the restoration of the fat cells
    Make a saline solution of these ingredients where you add salt ( table will be good) 1 cup-epsom salt 1 cup-baking soda ½ cup-borax ½ cup and a iodine soap 1 oz and fill the tub with hot water as hot as you can handle—sit in it for at the least 20 – 30 minutes lightly scrubbing with either a wash cloth or a brush and releasing the cells from the polymers and breaking the biofilm— This will remove radiation as well as particulates caught in the skin
    Internal Extraction—utilize pectin internally— and add to it wine—or a extract of grape raison—in this mix this will draw out from the colon and draw it out of a person—-take raisons and add to wine in a pot and heat-simmer it down to about half and then when done turn of stove and then add to a blender and blend together and strain— mix this with pectin…
    How to Make A Filter
    1) Find a plastic bag (preferably with handles)
    2) place charcoal at the bottom, next sand, next pebbles, another layer of sand and more rocks.
    3) tie the handles of the plastic bag to a tree branch or a hook to elevate the bag (like shown in picture).
    4) pour the water in the bag.
    5) poke a small hole at the bottom of the bag.
    6) place a water container or jar at the bottom to catch the clean water.
    This only removes large sediment and the charcoal improves the taste, note: this DOES NOT FULLY PURIFY WATER.
    Also, you can purchase a “almond milk bag” or a “mesh screen bag” on Amazon to make this process even easier, or just use a shirt or cloth to remove the large particles.
    If you use this below ground tehnique you should boil the water for 10 minutes at a steady boil before drinking, or use iodine tablets to be safe.–Also you can purchase a “LifeStraw” its basically a filter that is a shape of a straw so you can drink unpureified water straight from the device. It gets rid of 100 percent waterborne bacteria and 98.7 percent of viruses and particles. Five million people per year die from waterborne illness, mostly children and people that have compromised immune systems.
    It’s not safe to drink unpurified water from the below-ground technique, you can catch Cryptosporidium or other viruses even parasites if you don’t purify the water. You should
    1) get a reliable water filter like the lifeStraw.
    2) Boil the water for 10 minutes at a steady boil.
    3) Use iodine tablets.
    Filtration and Distillation
    All of these condensation techniques produce clean, distilled water ready to drink water. Distillation removes 99% of all contaminants, however you may get a few stray plant or soil particles doing this. In that case you might want to filter it out, re-distill or boil the water just to make sure it’s safe to drink.
    Filter out large particles-You can use a t-shirt or a mesh screen bag to filter out big particles, you can find “almond milk bags” online that work quite well, but if you’re in a pinch you can always make one——Take a bag, fill it with pebbles/rocks, next layer would be charcoal, next would be more pebbles/rocks, next would be sand, more pebbles/rock. Then hand the plastic bag on a tree branch or hook and pour in the dirty water, now cut a tiny hole at the bottom and let the water slowly drip down into a container, this will take care of removing any sediment and charcoal improves the taste. (note: This doe not fully purify water)—– Purifying Water:
    There are two ways of doing this, boiling the water for 10 minutes at a steady boil, or distillation. Distillation is basically what we did above, using heat to steam water, the water transpiring or condensing and turning into pure drinking water.
    If you have dirty water, rain water, ocean water, or otherwise questionable drinking water, purify it by using distillation.
    Solar Distillation—If you have no access to fire, use this method. This is the same concept as the solar still technique, you are using heat of the sun to distill water. You would need a large metal bowl, plastic wrap, a rock, and a small container to catch the clean water. Fill the metal bowl with the dirty or questionable water, place the small container in the middle, cover the large metal bowl with plastic (make sure that its completely sealed), then place a rock in the middle on-top of the plastic wrap or sheeting. Now, place this contraption in the sun. In no time you will have pure drinking water!
    Fire Distiller–Same concept as the solar distiller but you’re using fire to heat up a large pot of dirty water so the steam catches on a sheet of plastic and drips down into a cup(s). — Prepare a campfire, get a metal pot. Then construct a makeshift arch above the campfire about 3-4 ft tall over the campfire using sticks (it should resemble a door frame). Then cover the top of the arch with long plastic sheeting so that it’s over the pot and the campfire (the plastic sheet should be 1-2 feet over the boiling pot). Tie the corners of the plastic with sticks and anchor to the ground, make the plastic somewhat loose and not too tight. Now on each side, place a rock on the plastic, and under the rock place a water container (like the solar still technique), do this on each side. Now get a campfire going, place the pot on the campfire and pour in the dirty water, get the water to a roaring boil. The steam from the boiling water should rise up towards the plastic sheeting, and gravity should eventually move the condensation where the rock weights have been placed, and the condensation should drip into the water containers that have been placed on the ends of the plastic sheeting. You can constantly fill up the pot with dirty water, in this video it shows survivalists pouring sea water into the boiling pot while doing other survival tasks.
    Quick reference chart for RADAR neurological reprogramming experiments and kill ratio statistics
    Weapon capability
    Effectiveness/Risk Mechanisms
    Blood Clots Not very effective except under long duration exposure and other preconditions. Increases platelets and red blood cell count. Unidentified waveforms of bio-signaling mechanisms to human cells. An aspirin a day will dilute the blood.
    Stroke Low. Only effective on the elderly or congenital conditions. Vasoconstriction, adrenal runaway process, uses CIA spooking and scaring scripts. Also can increase probability by using an abnormal atrium fibrillation signal that increases probability of clots. Don’t panic. Valium. Meditation.
    Heart Attack, Arrhythmias, weakened beating Near term – Low probability of success. Longer term stress takes its toll. Risk is determined by Congenital conditions. Vasoconstriction, adrenal runaway process, uses CIA spooking and scaring scripts. Alterations in heart beat using ion cyclotron heating techniques. Beta-wave enhancers and brain entrainments. Don’t panic. Valium. Meditation. Thick leather over chest. Other shielding and jamming techniques for directed energy. Beta blockers stop brain signals from being able to increase heart rate. US Air Force is most interested in improving these kill figures.
    Leukemia and autoimmune diseases Long term risk. These effects are by products of experiments done to enhance the immune system. Microwave frequencies. Increased white blood cell count and over stimulation of the immune system. Alteration of sugar metabolism in cells is well documented in the world health organization. Good diet. No defenses known other than superconductor shielding.
    Addiction and self medicating Many. Used to both discredit target and speed along menticide for deletion and reduce risk of retaliation. Amplification of addictive brain entrainments. Stress, and negative sublimal and hypnotic suggestion using silent sound programming. Pain signals. Post traumatic stress syndrome from tortures. Shielding and Jamming. Alpha wave dominant bio-feedback practice. Knowledge of CIA scripts and tactics. Positive hypnosis.
    Cancer 5% according to classified documents over entire Earth population Electromagnetic energy/pollution Unimportant risk compared with others.
    Global Warming high All the ionospheric heaters and phased arrays pump billions of watts into the atmosphere over the Earth. Unimportant risk compared to what else has been done to the human race and time line. Fluorocarbons and pollution might be a bigger contributor.
    V2K – A denial of service attack to the mind. 70% . Discrediting method and productivity reduction. Negativity of the language causes depression and despair. audio cortex mapping. Language bots – computer generated conversations also called mind viruses. Positive hypnosis. Remember real people are not usually behind the verbal beatings and can’t be reasoned with.
    Pain and severe discomfort 95% Pre-recorded pains can be played through the brain like mp3 files. EEG cloning allows hive mind participants to share all senses and thoughts. One pain is everyone’s pain. Automated mind virus torture programs. Follows Dr. Camerons periodic torture depatterning approach. All real pains are amplified. Take ibuprofen. Bio-feedback training. When the brain hits alpha dominant cycles, the torture stops. Hypnosis also blocks the remote entrainment cycles.
    Psychological and Sociological Effects of CIA scripts and Directed Energy Assaults
    Isolation High Psychology of public is programmed to distance themselves from whomever talks about this in public. Obsession over being tortured and amazement over technology. CIA setting up track record for mental illness so can use as a programmed assassin or terrorist and be discredited in public eye. Support groups. Don’t talk about your situation to family or all your friends. Force yourself to interact normally in coffee shops and the like. Speak out under pseudonyms. More visible you are at condemning these human rights abuses, less likely they will program you to do their killing for them.
    Depression High Uses 3.3 and 6.6 hertz harmonics known to cause depression. Other more complex depression signals also used in brain entrainment inductions. 10 hertz binaural beats. SSRI reuptake inhibitors have mixed effects and may actually increase the effectiveness of the “not immediately lethal” weapons system. Don’t isolate. Find support groups.
    Suicide High All techniques are used to get rid of the human experiment with plausible denial after the majority of tests are done and it is used to improve kill ratio statistics before battlefield use. Support groups.
    ADD High Obvious scrambling of brain signal inductions lead to inability of targets to prioritize correctly and focus. Ritalin and pseudo-ephedrine have helped some targets counter effects.
    Obsessive/Compulsive High Part of the whole sequence simulating every known mental illness in targets to discredit and disable them. Take time off of this topic. More you train your mind to think about it, the more engrained those pathways become. Yes, it is exciting to learn the greatest secrets of neural linking technology but the knowledge can’t be shared or used by civilians so it isn’t really all that useful. The excitement is the sirens’ song.
    Bi-polar, panic and hysteria High risk. Total emotional control and amplification. Used to increase probability of isolation and dysfunction in groups. Army has written about creating white hot anger in radio frequency targets. Brain entrainments of common fundamental human algorithms. Valium, mood stabilizers. Practice not reacting to inner emotions. Disassociation.
    Stalking/break-ins/gas lighting 80% They are agents in training or other. Due to the increased paranoia from a few gas lighting incidences, everyone soon looks like a gas lighter. Know the head games. Take pictures of suspects and add to TI database. Simply ignore. Don’t fall for the gas lighting. Once it stops bothering you and you accept total invasion, they usually stop.
    Implants < 1% RFID tracking chips. Way to instill false hope in targets if they can just remove it…. #2 Discrediting tactic after alien abduction to explain experiences. The most common head games played with targets. Delusional guidelines lists implant claims to diagnose you as crazy. Even if you had one, removal will not stop it. The human body and brain prints are enough of unique identifiers. Chips are necessary.
    Other ways to disrupt and jam the RADAR sensor systems or change your brain print and bio-amplification factors
    Mylar Shielding on ceilings and walls Effectiveness can be improved by grounding. Effectiveness can be improved more by adding ions using inverters to charge sheets to 10,000 volts. Staple loosely so that air convection currents can wiggle them.
    Body/head resonance scramblers This is a communication war. Adding noise to the RADAR grids readings decreases the return signal effectiveness. Scrambling/jamming helps destroy the informal coherence of the bio signal that the brain can learn.
    Mu Metal arc over head while sleeping Low frequency, low intensity magnetic fields are used. See Dr. Persingers work. Decreasing the decibel of at least one component of the induction signal can disconnect the feedback loop.
    Super conductor shields Very expensive but block 100% of magnetic fields. They aren’t portable and require liquid nitrogen to keep functional.
    Language reprogramming EEG software The brain learns the communication signals. Re-association using a linguistic Pavlov effect can scramble the low probability of deciphering communication strategy for silent sound assaults.
    Education More you understand about the how, who, and why the less of a mystery it is. And more grounded you become. Don’t waste your time or money making the same mistakes as others before you. Become a soldier in this silent holocaust and make yourself useful by furthering the research and public education. Try the low risk solution others have succeeded with in combination. Think of yourself like a cell phone. Each method you use in combination reduces the effectiveness until suddenly the signal drops out. Then you have developed coping mechanisms.
    Recharging Alkalines
    While waiting for my battery tester and alkaline charger to arrive, I sorted through the box, weeding out any leakers as well as odd ball batteries such as cell phone and hearing aid batteries. According to Wikipedia, the reason a battery leaks is this:
    As batteries discharge — either through usage or gradual self-discharge — the chemistry of the cells changes and some hydrogen gas is generated. This out-gassing increases pressure in the battery. Eventually, the excess pressure either ruptures the insulating seals at the end of the battery, or the outer metal canister, or both. In addition, as the battery ages, its steel outer canister may gradually corrode or rust, which can further contribute to containment failure.
    Surprisingly, most of the batteries in my box were clean. Something to keep in mind as you go through the sorting process is that if there is even a single leaker in the box, the residue can spread on to other batteries so it helps to have a rag handy to wipe each battery off to see if it is okay. If you even suspect that a battery has leaked, or if shows any rust or corrosion, don’t take a chance. Throw the baddies back in to the recycle box.
    I purchased an inexpensive battery tester from Amazon. There was nothing special about it and it was easy to use. Plus, it had the ability to test 9V batteries as well as button batteries and the traditional AA, AAA, C and D sized batteries.
    I then set to work, testing each and every battery in my box. Much to my surprise, there were a number of batteries that tested “fully charged”. It is interesting to note that many were 9 Volt batteries that came out of one of my carbon monoxide detectors. This leads me to believe that the detector is bad and not the batteries.
    Furthermore, I now believe that what commonly happens is that, for example, a remote control or flashlight is dead. You dump the batteries into the recycle box and install new ones. Easy peasy. But in truth, perhaps only a single battery of the 2 or 3 are bad so in effect, you are dumping out 1 discharged battery and 2 or 3 perfectly usable batteries. I even proved this myself. Since I now keep one of these $8 testers in my desk drawer, when my wireless mouse died a couple of days ago, I found that only one of the two AAA batteries that I had removed was dead. The other was showing almost a full charge. Go figure.
    The other thing, and something that makes me feel careless and stupid, there were some perfectly good rechargeable batteries in the box. Now how the heck did that happen?
    After reading reviews on various rechargers, I settled on the Maximal Power FC999 Universal Battery Charger. It wasn’t the most expensive available but according to a couple of the reviewers, this unit was exactly the same as a higher priced model. The difference was that this one is black and the other one was gray.—Now here is the deal with this charger. It has four separate charging chambers that operate independently of each other. This means that you can mix and match battery sizes (AA, AAA, C, D) without a problem. It also has a center 9V battery chamber but I have not been able to figure out whether that piggy backs upon one of the adjacent chambers or whether it operates separately.
    Note: this charger can also be used to charge Ni-cd and Ni-MH batteries but I only tested it on Alkaline batteries. There is a slider switch that allows you to select the type of batteries you are charging – they can not and should not be mixed and matched by type (although, as I mentioned, various sizes of the same type work just fine.)
    There is no question that I experienced a bit of trepidation when I inserted the batteries into the charger for the first time. But there was no smoke and no explosion so I continued on.
    A few seconds after you insert the batteries, the tester will recognize the status and the LED window will either say “CHA” (for charging) or “BAD” (for sorry, this is a bad battery and it cannot be charged). In addition, the following lights will glow:
    Red – Charging
    Green – Fully Charged
    Red Flashing – BAD
    As I mentioned above, each of the four chamber operates independently so you could have a combination of these three options all going at once.
    There is a chart in the manual that indicates that a AAA battery will take 2.5 hours to charge, a AA 5 hours, a C size 6 hours, and a D sized 10 hours. In my experience, however, they charge to the fully-charged, green light stage a lot sooner that than. Now here is the thing. Once fully charged, the charger switches to a trickle charge to keep the battery “at its optimum capacity” whatever that means.
    My experience is that if you leave the recharged batteries in the charger overnight – or say for about 10 or 12 hours – you will get a much stronger charge. I say this because I first tested some batteries right after the green light came on. On my tester, they would register at about the half way mark in the fully-charged area. If I put them back in the charger, the green fully-charged light would come on right away but when I took them out the next morning, the tester showed them about 90% charged.–After doing this a few times, I realized that next on my bucket list was a tester that would give me the actual voltage of the re-charged battery. My brother and nephew – both electronics wizards – have one and tell me that is the only way to truly test the remaining juice left in a used battery.